|Bamako Convention on the Ban of Import of Hazardous Wastes into Africa
The Bamako Convention on the ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes within Africa was adopted in Bamako, Mali, on 30 January 1991. The Bamako Convention came into force on 10 March 1999.
The objectives of the Bamako Convention are to protect human health and the environment from dangers posed by hazardous wastes by reducing their generation to a minimum in terms of quantity and/or hazard potential.
Only States which are members of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) can become a party to the Bamako Convention.
All Parties are obliged to prohibit the import of all hazardous wastes, for any reason, into Africa from non-Contracting Parties (article 4.1). The categories of wastes listed in Annex I to the Bamako Convention, a waste possessing any of the characteristics listed in Annex II to the Bamako Convention, as well as any waste considered to be hazardous by the domestic laws of either the state of import, export, or transit are considered hazardous wastes for the purposes of the Bamako Convention.
Under the Bamako Convention the dumping of hazardous wastes is prohibited as follows (article 4.2):
Parties in conformity with related international conventions and instruments shall, in the exercise of their jurisdiction within their internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones and continental shelf, adopt legal, administrative and other appropriate measures to control all carriers from non-Parties, and prohibit the dumping at sea of hazardous wastes, including their incineration at sea and their disposal in the seabed and the sub-seabed; any dumping of hazardous wastes at sea, including incineration at sea as well as seabed and sub-seabed disposal, by Contracting Parties, whether in internal waters, territorial seas, exclusive economic zones or high seas shall be deemed to be illegal.
It follows from this provision in combination with Annex I to the Bamako Convention that the dumping of radioactive wastes, industrial wastes, sewage and sewage sludge is prohibited. The Bamako Convention places the duty on the Parties to monitor their respective waterways to ensure that no dumping occurs. Each State Party must report annually to the Secretariat all the hazardous wastes generated each year.