The Kingdom of Eswatini submitted an ambitious and enhanced revised Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) document to UNFCCC in October 2021. Further to that through extensive stakeholder engagement, the NDC implementation Plan was developed and launched by Deputy Prime Minister (DPM) on 3 May 2023. The NDC is the country’s climate action plan as part of her commitments under the Paris Agreement. The NDC Implementation Plan is made available in siSwati and braille to ensure that no one is left behind. At the launch event, Minister of Tourism and Environmental Affairs, Minister of Economic Planning and Development and Minister of Finance were present along with development partners including NDC Partnership.
The NDC climate action includes commitments in agriculture, health, water, ecosystems and biodiversity, infrastructure, energy, waste, industry, forestry, gender, youth and disaster risk reduction and has a timeline of 2021-2030, with an estimated cost of US $ 1.3 billion to implement. The DPM called on all development partners, private sector and all stakeholders to support NDC implementation.
Swaziland ratified the Montreal Protocol in 1992. For Swazilands implementation of the Protocol, funding is fully obtained from UNEP. The country has formulated regulations as a way of implementing some parts of the Protocol -specifically Art 4 (b) of the Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.
The Protocol through the Refrigerant Management Plan tries to phase out refrigerants, hence the Regulations also try to address this under the Second Schedule of the 2003 Ozone Depleting Substances Regulations, which have been recently gazetted. The Regulations entail a licensing system on the import and export of ozone depleting substances as a means of regulating the transfer of such substances which can leave the country with adverse impacts. This will in turn help the SEA to improve its monitoring exercises to end users of these substances.
The Department of Customs and Excise play an important role in determining the end users of these for ease of monitoring by the Authority. Through training sessions awareness has been raised on the existence of the draft Regulations and its aims. The department has also been taught the methods of data collection to be produced on SEA’s demand. This is because these are based at the entry points of the country and has been targeted to obtained good data for the ozone unit.
The regulations are already in use as the Customs Department liases with the Authority’s Ozone Unit constantly. The Authority has now started to design the permit to be issued, which will also have a bearing on the SEA parent law.
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Following the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole in late 1985, governments recognized the need for stronger measures to reduce the production and consumption of a number of CFCs (CFC 11, 12, 113, 114, and 115) and several Halons (1211, 1301, 2402). The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted on 16 September 1987 at the Headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal. The Protocol came into force on 1st January 1989, when it was ratified by 29 countries and the EEC. Since then several other countries have ratified it.
The Protocol was designed so that the phase out schedules could be revised on the basis of periodic scientific and technological assessments. Following such assessments, the Protocol was adjusted to accelerate the phase out schedules. It has also been amended to introduce other kinds of control measures and to add new controlled substances to the list.
Theme for 2006: Protect the Ozone Layer: Save Life on Earth
Since 1995, on 16 September each year, the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer is celebrated. This date has been designated by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 49/114, to commemorate the signing of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.