Selected key functions of the EEA include:

a) improving the level of protection, conservation and enhancement of the environment and the sustainable management of natural resources,
b) to assist the Minister in formulating policies relating to the environment and the sustainable management of natural resources;
c) to advise and to make recommendation to the Minister and the Government either upon request or at its own initiative on matters relating to the protection, conservation and enhancement of the environment and the sustainable management of natural resources;
d) to facilitate the development of economic measures that encourage the sustainable management and use of natural resources and the enhancement, protection and conservation of the environment;
e) to administer the Eswatini Environment Fund in accordance with the policies and directions of the Board of the Fund;
f) to administer licences issued under the Act in accordance with the provisions of this Act;
g) to advise local authorities on the protection, conservation and enhancement of the environment and the sustainable management of natural resources;
h) to prepare National Environmental Action Plans and to promote their implementation;
i) to review environmental impact assessment reports and strategic environmental assessments reports;
j) to undertake and promote research into matters relevant to the protection, conservation and enhancement of the environment and the sustainable management of natural resources;
k) to promote public awareness relating to the protection, conservation and enhancement of the environment and the sustainable management of natural resources;
l) to recommend environmental standards, codes of practice, guidelines and legislation to the Minister and the Government;
m) to publish guidelines, codes of practice and other information relating to the protection and conservation of the environment and the sustainable management of natural resources;
n) to conduct inspections and take other measures to monitor compliance with this Act and to conduct investigations into alleged contraventions of this Act;
o) to take all reasonably practical measures, to enforce this Act and other environmental protection legislation either alone or in co-operation with relevant bodies and police forces, including issuing and enforcing orders and prosecuting offences