In Eswatini populations of many species continue to decline with several species going extinct. Habitat destruction is probably the most important factor leading to the decline and ultimately

the extinction. In the county habitat destruction may take the following forms; urbanization, agricultural development, industrial development, construction, wood-cutting, density of livestock and indiscriminate use of fire.

Eswatini’s Protected Areas

Eswatini has established a system of protected areas for the conservation of biological diversity. The guidelines for the selection, establishment and management and these areas these areas are contained in the protected area legislation.

Biodiversity – Regional Initiatives

Joint Initiatives with Other Parties
Joint intiatives includes:

  1. Biodiversity Conservation Participatory Development – (BCPD)
  2. Southern African Biodiversity Support Project – (SABSP)
  3. Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative – (LSDI)
  4. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network -(SABONET)
  5. Service for Biodiversity Conservation. and Sustainable Development -(SECOSUD)

Convention on Biological Diversity – Eswatini Status

Our main achievements:

  1. Formulated the NBSAP
  2. Prepared National Reports (First and second report to COP)
  3. Prepared National Environment Action Plan
  4. Established a National Committee to oversee implementation of convention CBD (BPIC)
  5. Formulated the Forest Policy and in the process of finalising the preparation of the National Forestry Action Programme and Forestry legislation
  6. Acquired Block B funds from GEF to prepare a project on biodiversity conservation and eco-tourism development
  7. In a process if formulating a National Biosafety framework and legislation
  8. Identified the Protection Worthy Areas
  9. In a process of formulating a National Biosafety Framework and legislation
  10. Strengthening the National Plant Genetic Resources centre the National Herbarium and National Museum
  11. Established National Regulations on Environment Impact Assessment
  12. Carrying out Farm Animals Genetic Resources survey
  13. Instituted a national fish survey

Eswatini attaches great significance to the CBD however there are serious constrains that limit its implementation. Some of the major constrains are:

  • Insufficient expertise
  • Public awareness on Biodiversity issues is still low. The general public does not fully appreciate and internalise the issues of the convention
  • No research Facilities and most research is or an ad hoc basis and mostly not guided by National programme
  • Legislation on access to genetic resources and equitable sharing of benefits arising from biodiversity conservation is absent
  • There is a need to create comprehensive legislation that will bring all the legislation under one roof
  • Most of the legislation is outdated, there is need for the comprehensive legislation for biodiversity

Bonn Convention – Eswatini Status

Bonn Convention not yet ratified.

RAMSAR Convention – Eswatini Status

RAMSAR not yet ratified.

Chemicals Management

• The National Chemicals Profile is being finalized
• The National Implementation Plan has been validated by Stakeholders and at its final stages
• The two proposed partnership projects which are the Strategy to Eliminate Lead in Paint and the Strategy to Implement the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, are still in draft stage


The current work that is being done includes developing the updated and reviewed NIP (National Implementation Plan). The process of doing so is being divided into five components or phases:
• The establishment of a coordinating mechanism and a process organization
• The establishment of POPs inventories and assessment of national infrastructure and capacity
• Priority assessment and objective setting
• Formulation of the NIP
• Endorsement and submission of the NIP

The ongoing work is now being focused on the establishment of POPs inventories and establishment of national infrastructure and capacity, as well as priority assessment and objective setting.

Current Waste Scenario

The growing waste management problem in the Kingdom of Eswatini can be seen as a symptom of many factors. Industrialisation, consumer patterns, urbanisation and population growth as well as the absence of waste management information has precluded strategic planning in the past.

This has prevented the implementation of appropriate remedial action such as changes in behavioural patterns; establishment of waste infrastructure and the development of required legislation in order to prevent, recycle and eventually handle waste that must be collected, treated and disposed.

With the increasing pressure of population growth coupled with the investments being made into economic infrastructure in peri-urban and rural areas located on Swazi Nation Land, there is an urgent need to identify appropriate means to improve waste management in these areas. This is relevant for household waste, waste from commercial nodes, as well as health care risk waste from health care facilities. This is perhaps less a technical exercise, since a range of technological approaches are already in existence world-wide; but perhaps more an institutional exercise by looking into and agreeing on suitable institutional and also financial arrangements. In 2001 a comprehensive Status Quo analysis of the current waste situation in Eswatini was compiled.


• Biosafety Act is in place
• Biosafety Registrar has been appointed
• National Biosafety Advisory Committee (NBAC) has been appointed and gazetted
• Finalizing Biosafety Regulations and administrative documents
• The Biosafety Registry is now ready to accept GMO applications

Ozone Depleting Substances

Elimination of ODS and how the country has done so far

Eswatini has been robust in its fight against the consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) to meet the Montreal Protocol targets. The country is aimed at achieving a total phase out of ODS by 2030 which will be achieved in a step staged approach. The first stage was the baseline freeze which was achieved in 2013, secondly, the 10% and thirdly the 35 % reductions in 2015 and 2020 respectively.

About 64 metric tonnes of refrigerants were consumed in Eswatini in pre 2009. During this year most of the refrigerants (80%) were consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, followed by the domestic sector which took up about 18 percent, and the least user was mobile air conditioning with about 2 percent.

The country has been lucky to achieve even more than the targeted reductions in a short space of time. This has been achieved quickly through the conversion of the Palfridge factory from using ODS (R141b) to a natural refrigerant, cyclopentane. The major consumer of ODS in the country had been the Palfridge factory (commercial and industrial sector) which consumed 69000 kgs of ODS per year before phasing it out to use natural refrigerants. This means there will be a 50% reduction of ODS in the country.